Based on a sample of undergraduate students at a university in Texas, Anderson et al. 2009 reported (p. 216) that:
Contrary to popular beliefs, feminists reported lower levels of hostility toward men than did nonfeminists.
But this stereotype-inconsistent pattern was based a coding of "feminist" that reflected whether a participant had defined "feminist" "in a way consistent with our operational definition of feminism" (p. 220) and not based on whether the participant self-identified as a feminist, a self-identification for which the researchers had data.
I assessed claims about self-identified feminists' views of men using data from the ANES 2016 Time Series Survey national sample. My first predictor was a dichotomous measure of sex, coded 1 for female and 0 for male. My second predictor was self-identified feminist, coded as 1 for a participant who identified as a feminist or strong feminist in variable V161345.
The best available dataset measures to construct a measure of negative attitudes toward men were measures of perceived levels of discrimination against men and women in the United States (V162363 and V162362, respectively). I coded participants as 1 in a dichotomous variable if the participant indicated "none at all" for the amount of discrimination against men in the United States but indicated a nonzero level of discrimination against women in the United States. Denial of discrimination is a plausible measure of negative attitudes toward a group that faces discrimination, and there is statistical evidence that men in the United States face discrimination in areas such as criminal sentencing (e.g., Doerner 2012 and Starr 2015); moreover, men are formally excluded from certain opportunities, such as opportunities at the NSF-funded Visions in Methodology conference.
In weighted regressions, 37% of nonfeminist women reported no discrimination against men and a nonzero level of discrimination against women, compared to 46% of feminist women, with a p-value of p=0.002 for the 9 percentage-point difference. However, the gap between feminist men and nonfeminist men was 20 percentage points, with 28% of nonfeminist men reporting no discrimination against men and a nonzero level of discrimination against women, compared to 48% of feminist men, with a p-value less than 0.001 for the difference. Feminist identification was thus associated with an 11 percentage-point larger difference in anti-male attitudes for men than for women, with a p-value for the difference of p=0.012.
Output for the interaction model is below:
2. The denialDM output variable is dichotomous, but estimates and inferences do not change if logit is used instead of linear regression.
3. The dataset has another question (V161346) that asked participants how well "feminist" described them, on a 5-point scale (extremely well, very well, somewhat well, not very well, and not at all); inferences are the same using that measure. Inferences are also the same using V161345 to make a 3-part feminist measure coded from non-feminist to strong feminist. See the Stata code.
4. Hat tip to Nathaniel Bechhofer, who retweeted this tweet, which led to this post.